Earth, the Water Planet

Numbering Code G-LAS15 80004 LB58 Year/Term 2021 ・ First semester
Number of Credits 2 Course Type Lecture
Target Year Graduate students Target Student For all majors
Language English(Japanese) Day/Period Wed.3
Instructor name YAMASHIKI YOUSUKE (Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability Professor)
ASAI AYUMI (Graduate School of Science Associate Professor)
Outline and Purpose of the Course (授業概要)本講義においては地球が水惑星として誕生した地球惑星科学的条件について焦点をあて,他の地球型惑星との比較,放射平衡温度(黒体温度)と惑星探査機による惑星表面温度との比較からそれぞれの惑星の大気による温室効果の比較,また暴走温室効果や雪玉地球形成条件から水惑星として存在しうる条件について学ぶ。また地球史の学習を通じて海洋と大気の形成条件と,海洋循環や水文循環プロセスがもたらす気候安定効果について学び,そのシステムが機能しなくなった際の極端事象について学ぶ。また大量絶滅事象を学習することにより,地球生態システムを維持するための要因について学ぶ。また同時に、地球と類似の環境を持ちうる太陽系外惑星についてその分類方法とハビタブルゾーンの定義について太陽系外惑星データベースExoKyotoを用いて学ぶ。
(Outline) This lecture will focus on physical background on the formation and development of Planet Earth as the Water Planet. The critical condition for the formation of ocean and presence of hydrological cycle on the Earth will be discussed by introducing basis of planetary physics and the history of the Earth. After introducing global scale issues, this lecture will also focus on catchment scale hydrology by introducing the concept of Sustainable Catchment Management aiming for better protection of lakes, reservoirs and surrounding ocean area/coastal zone. In addition, we’ll study classification of extrasolar planetary system by learning definition of Goldilocks (Habitable) zone by using Exoplanetkyoto exoplanetary database.
(Learning goal) This lecture aims for all students to comprehend basic knowledge of our planet earth as “Water Planet” in the solar system by learning specific characteristics of inner / outer planets through mutual comparison, by learning several extinction events throughout history of the earth, and by considering the mission of our “Human being” as creature living in this planet.
Course Goals 地球環境問題を考えてゆく上で基礎となる地球型惑星の形成過程と、地球のみが水惑星として生命を育むことができた条件を理解し、また地球自体の変遷過程の学習を通じて、豊かな海洋資源と短水資源に育まれた現在の人類を取り巻く環境を今後どのようにして維持してゆくべきかについての解決策を探求することができる大学院生としてふさわしい知見を身につける。
(Learning goal) This lecture aims for all students to comprehend basic knowledge in the following: (1) formation process of the planet earth as Water Planet, comparing other planets with less / no water in its surface (2) concepts of “Goldilocks zone” through learning extrasolar planets (3) celestial bodies that induce potential thread to human being, and (4) necessary skills and knowledge required to design Earth’s future environment.
Schedule and Contents (山敷 庸亮・浅井歩/15回 講義)
【第1~2回】 地球型惑星それぞれの比較を通じて水惑星地球の形成について学ぶ。地球型惑星それぞれについての太陽定数・惑星アルベドを利用した放射平衡温度(黒体温度 Blackbody Temperature)算定を通じて,各惑星における大気の組成比較とその温室効果の違いについて学ぶ。
【第3~4回】 海洋形成の条件1-金星を例にとり暴走温室効果(Runaway Greenhouse Effect)と射出限界(Critical Flax)について学ぶ。同時に、太陽の影響についても学ぶ。
【第5回】 海洋形成の条件2-雪玉地球(Snowball Earth)を例にとり,水文プロセス形成条件について学ぶ。
【第6回】 大気海洋相互作用-エルニーニョ南方振動(ENSO)とインド洋ダイポールモード(IOD)について学ぶ。
【第9~10回】 地球惑星形成の歴史1-月誕生過程について,ジャイアント・インパクト説をもとに解説する。
【第11回】  地球惑星形成の歴史2-雪玉地球(Snowball Earth)時代の証拠とその大気組成への影響(過酸化水素の生成による酸素濃度増加説),海洋凍結による海洋循環停止の影響について学ぶ。
【第12回】  地球惑星形成の歴史3-ペルム期末大量絶滅(P-T境界事変)と海洋無酸素事変(Oceanic Anoxic Events - OAEs)について学ぶ。
【第13回】  地球惑星形成の歴史4-白亜紀末大量絶滅(K-Pg (K-T) 境界事変)と隕石衝突説,またその証拠とされるK-Pg(K-T)境界層のイリジウムについて学ぶ。
【第14回】  地球惑星形成の歴史5-新生代・完新世の大量絶滅の可能性につて学ぶ。
【第15回】  ExoKyotoを利用して太陽系外惑星、ハビタブルゾーンについて学び、水惑星を守り,生命を維持してゆくための仕組みについて学ぶ。
【第16回】  フィードバック
First & Second: Overview of the course; Introduction of the Planet Earth as Water Planet through intercomparison with other (Terrestrial and Jovian) planets in the solar system. .
Third & Fourth:Critical condition for the formation of ocean and hydrological cycle on the Earth; Introduction of the basis of planetary physics and history of the Earth, throughout comprehension of Critical fluxes and runaway greenhouse effect. Learning also important effect of solar radiation and solar activities.
Fifth: Interaction of near land surface atmospheric processes with catchment hydrologic and geomorphic processes as well as land cover effects, examples from rain and snow dominated environments. Evaporation and transpiration, and potential threat of shutdown all processes throughout Snowball Earth.
Sixth:Oceanic-continental mutual interaction. Introduction of ENSO and IOD as ocean-atmosphere interactions.. Introduction of basic physical oceanography focusing on surrounding ocean area and coastal zone.
Seventh & Eighth : Introduce Solar - Earth Interaction, space weather (Seventh) and impact of Solar activity on Earth's long term climate.
Ninth & Tenth:Formation of the Moon based on the hypothesis of Giant Impact and its important effect on creating current Earth’s environment.
Eleventh : Learning the root cause and its effect of Snowball earth and complete shutdown of hydrological processes on the Earth.
Twelveth: Introducing Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) Extinction Event and potential threat of Oceanic Anoxia Events (OAE).
Thirteenth : Learning historical extinction event induced by large asteroid attack through introducing Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) (or Cretateous-Tertiary (K-T)) Extinction Event and K-Pg (K-T) boundary.
Fourteenth: Learning Cenozoic and Holocene catastrophic events by introducing several hypotheses of asteroid impacts and volcanic eruptions.
Fifteenth: Learning concepts of “Goldilocks zone” by introducing solar and extrasolar planetary system using ExoKyoto, an extrasolar planetary database system.
Sixteenth: Feedback
Astronomical observation events for inner/outer planets are scheduled in Kyoto (at Kwasan Observatory, and surrounding area etc.) using refracting telescope and binocular telescope for those who wish to join.
Evaluation Methods and Policy 講義中に行う簡単なレポートと、最終回に提示するレポートにより評価する。
An examination will be given at the conclusion of the course; students will also be asked to submit a “final report”. Grades given in these two components will determine the grade assigned to each student.
Course Requirements None
Study outside of Class (preparation and review) 宇宙関連の情報をできるだけ収集する。
It is strongly recommended for all student to constantly browse information concerning spatial science update and educational program available both internet and television program.
Textbooks Textbooks/References 資料を配布。
To be recommended during the lecture
References, etc. シリーズ現代の天文学 第一巻 人類の住む宇宙 及び 第九巻太陽系と惑星 ・ 京大学術出版会 総合生存学概論
ExoplanetKyoto- ExoKyoto