Environmental Geosphere Engineering

Numbering Code G-ENG01 6A405 LJ77 Year/Term 2021 ・ First semester
Number of Credits 2 Course Type Lecture
Target Year Target Student
Language Japanese Day/Period Wed.2
Instructor name KOIKE KATSUAKI (Graduate School of Engineering Professor)
HAYASHI TAMETO (Graduate School of Engineering Professor)
KASHIWAYA KOUKI (Graduate School of Engineering Associate Professor)
KINOSHITA MASATAKA (Part-time Lecturer)
Outline and Purpose of the Course Earth's crust environment engineering is an academic field closely related to our lives, and it covers many problems related to Earth science and engineering, such as the underground development and use of infrastructure facilities, the geological disposal of radioactive waste, underground storage of gas and liquid, natural disasters including landslides and earthquakes, as well as the exploration, development, and resource quantity evaluation of groundwater resources, metal/non-metal mineral resources, and geothermal and energy resources. This lecture covers topics that are important in Earth's crust environment engineering and their basic concepts, engineering applications, and the spatial information approach to clarify the geological, physical, and chemical properties of the Earth’s crust, while introducing research examples.
Course Goals Thoroughly understand the positioning of the Earth’s crust as an element of the Earth, the physical and chemical properties, its importance as a resource germination place that benefits humanity, and the source of natural disaster threats that is contradictory to this. Along with that, finding out one's own direction in the relationship with the Earth’s crust, which can contribute to the welfare of humanity and a sustainable society; in other words, development and use methods of the Earth’s crust and environmental conservation laws.
Schedule and Contents 1. Introduction and fundamentals of water cycles (1 time)
In addition to explaining the program of this class, global environmental issues will be summarized as the starting point of this class. As examples of material circulation on a global scale, especially taking water environment issues into account that have recently attracted attention, the mechanism of the water cycle, the physical and geological factors that govern water flow, and so forth will be explained, and understanding of the importance of the Earth’s crust will be gained. [Koike]

2. Chemistry of the Earth System (2 times)
Since Earth’s crust environment engineering is an academic field targeting the Earth, it is first necessary to understand the structure, physics, and chemistry of the Earth. For that purpose, there will be a review on general geology and minerals, and the chemical properties of the rock minerals forming the Earth’s crust, mantle, core, the chemical composition of the crustal fluid, and the chemical reaction of rocks and fluids and so forth will be discussed. Additionally, the function of microorganisms on the Earth’s crust chemistry will be explained. [Koike]

3. Physics of the Earth system (3 times)
The materials and pressure structure of the Earth will be reviewed, and the dynamics of the Earth including crustal deformation will be explained (1 time). Next, the deep crustal fluid, which is important for the thermal structure of the Earth, and the formation of mineral, oil, and gas deposits will be explained (2 times). [Hayashi and Kinoshita]

4. Foundations of Geoinformatics (1) (Geological modeling method) (2 times)
The spatial informatics approach to clarify in detail the physical and chemical properties of the Earth’s crust and its distribution over time-space will be explained in series.
First, as a method for modeling geological structure and physical properties from discretely distributed geological information, an overview will be given on mathematical geology, the general analytical method of geological data, and spatial correlation structure analysis by variogram. Next, a lecture will be given on spatial data estimation by kriging, geostatistical simulation, and the application of a neural network, which is a form of deep learning, will be provided along with a study example. [Koike]

5. Foundations of Geoinformatics (2) (Scaling of geological structure) (1 time)
Although what is underground cannot be seen directly, information on geology, geometric structure, crustal deformation, crustal chemistry, and so forth may appear in the topography. As a method for estimating the deep environment of the Earth’s crust surface, a lecture will be given on the utilization of topographical and geological information, as well as estimating the local structure from limited information to wide scale, or the scaling of geological structure (what connects micro and macro, etc.). [Koike]

6. Fundamentals of Geoinformatics (3) (Remote sensing) (2 times)
An outline of remote sensing which is effective as a survey method concerning the physics/chemistry of geological crust, geological structure, variation, resource exploration, and environmental monitoring will be given. First, a lecture will be given on the interaction of materials and electromagnetic waves, and remote sensing by optical sensors, with research and survey examples. Next, the basics of remote sensing by microwave sensor, the identification of surface material by polarimetric SAR, topographic analysis by interference SAR, and crustal deformation analysis will be explained.

7. Fundamentals of Geoinformatics (4) (Earth measurement/geochemical exploration) (1 time)
As a visualization method of the crustal structure, the Earth measurement method using a physical response, the inversion analysis method of data by this method, and the geochemical exploration method for extracting and analyzing chemical anomalies in the shallow part of the surface will be outlined. [Koike]

8. Geosphere environmental and resource problems (2 times)
There are cases where the Earth’s crust is used as a long-term storage location. The geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, which is representative, and an underground reservoir of carbon dioxide will be described. Additionally, since there are abundant mineral resources and energy resources, such as methane hydrate, that are also at the bottom of the sea and under the seabed, the structure of the oceanic crust and the method of exploration and development of marine resources, as well as the utilization situation of global resources and the resource problem will be covered, and a lecture will be given on natural energy using geothermal heat, and its advantages and disadvantages. [Koike and Hayashi]

Feedback (1 time)
There will be a supplementary explanation, through classes, individual consultations, and so forth about the parts where students may have insufficient understanding of the lecture contents described above, based on the evaluation of reports.
Evaluation Methods and Policy The grades will be evaluated by combining the report and points given for participation in class. The points given for participation in class will be evaluated based on attendance status, confirmation of comprehension level by quizzes, and so forth during class. The ratio between report and participation points is about 9:1.
Course Requirements It is desirable that students have basic knowledge of geology, physics, and chemistry.
Study outside of Class (preparation and review) Reports will be assigned about three or four times in order to review the contents of the class. The aim is to deepen understanding by solving problems.
Textbooks Textbooks/References Handouts will be distributed during each class.
References, etc. References will be introduced in the handouts.
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